PhD Scholarship in Multiphase Flow Dynamic (Feb 2021 Entry)
 Reference: 2003ITM_XGY
 Length of Scholarships: up to 36 months, subject to satisfactory progression
 Programme PhD Mechanical Engineering
 Place:  1
 Closing Date:  30 September 2020

Additional admissions requirements for the programme:

  • The candidate should have a strong background on fluid mechanics, applied mathematics and programming such as Fortran, C or C++

The available PhD scholarships cover:

  • Tuition fee
  • Monthly stipend (RMB4,500)
  • Medical insurance with designate providers
  • All above items are covered for up to 36 months based on satisfactory progression
  • All regulations set out in the UNNC PGR Scholarship Policy apply

In addition to the above scholarship, successful candidates also have the opportunity to carry out paid teaching (after the completion of Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) training) or research assistant duties at UNNC since second year of their PhD programmes.

Available PhD research areas:

The above scholarship is to support research projects outlined under the following themes: 

Title of the theme: Investigation on gas-liquid-solid three phase flow coupled with meso-scale particle-bubble interactions, particle-bubble turbulence modulation in bubble column reactors

This project aims to investigate gas-liquid-solid three phase flow coupled with meso-scale interactions between particles and bubbles, bubble induced turbulence and particle modulated liquid turbulence in bubble column reactors. 

The specific objectives that will determine the success of the project are:

  • To present modelling that can be used to characterise bubble-particle interactions and propose LES-Euler/Lagrange simulations with an emphasis on bubble-particle interaction, focusing on employing a possible sticking probability by adhesion forces. The modelling will be based on a stochastic collision model proposed by Sommerfeld, which includes hydrodynamic interactions such as particles being dragged by bubbles and vice versa. An additional resistance term for both phases will be introduced.
  • To propose a novel bubble coalescence and breakup kernel that takes into account the effects of bubble induced turbulence, modulation on liquid phase turbulence by solid particles, and the impact of modified turbulence on bubble coalescence and breakup. The proposed model will be implemented by employing two bubble group population balance models.
  • To develop a liquid-phase sub-grid model that considers the scale and concentration effects of liquid phase turbulence modulation by bubbles and solid particles, which will then be coupled with the two bubble group population balance models to perform three-phase large eddy simulation. 
  • To adopt PIV and ECVT techniques to experimentally obtain the fluid dynamic parameters and characteristics of phase distribution in gas-liquid-solid three-phase bubble column reactors, especially the liquid phase turbulence power spectra. The experimental data will be used to validate the large eddy simulation of three-phase bubble column reactor and study the fundamental interactions of gas-liquid-solid three phases. The project will reveal the meso-scale turbulence structures due to particles and bubbles in the three-phase bubble column reactors and the coupling mechanisms of turbulence modulation.

Informal inquiries may be addressed to Professor Xiaogang Yang (, but formal applications should follow the instructions in ‘How to apply’ section. 


PhD programme structure

PhD programmes at the UNNC are composed of 3 years research and a 1 year thesis pending period for full time PhDs. Full time PhDs are expected to submit their theses within a maximum of four years from initial registration. PhD supervision is undertaken jointly by academics from the University of Nottingham Ningbo China (UNNC) and the University of Nottingham UK (UNUK). On successful completion, students will be awarded the University of Nottingham PhD degree, and no reference will be made on the degree certificate as to where the degree has been completed. The University of Nottingham PhD degree will be accredited by the Chinese Ministry of Education.


Applicants must have a first class honours undergraduate degree or 65% and above for a Masters’ degree from a British university, or the equivalent from other institutions.

Applicants must meet the required English language proficiency for the relevant subject area. IELTS 6.5 (minimum 6.0 in all elements) or its equivalent is required for Faculty of Science and Engineering (FoSE) scholarship applicants.

More details can be found on the ‘entry requirements’ page of the website.


How to apply

No separate application is required for applying for a scholarship but please make sure you quote the scholarship reference number in your PhD application form. It normally takes 7-8 weeks for a final decision to be made after the closing date. List of required documents can be found on the ‘how to apply’ page.