University of Nottingham Ningbo China
School of
Computer Science
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Computational Intelligence in Optimisation

The Computational Intelligence in Optimisation (CIO) group is concerned with developing mathematical models and intelligent methods and systems for complex real-world optimisation problems in the era of big data. CIO research broadly covers three multi-disciplinary research themes at the interface between computer science and operations research:

Computational complexity and intelligent search

We seek to understand the complexity of problems of practical importance, across a wide range of application areas, and focus on the development of intelligent search methods to aid the decision making process. Research topics include meta-heuristics, hyper-heuristics, machine learning, evolutionary computation and other naturally-inspired search techniques and AI methods.

Modelling and analysis

Modelling the complexity and uncertainties inherent in complex, real-world optimisation problems across a wide range of application areas in the era of big data. Our novel research generates modeling and analysis methodologies for both general and bespoke purposes. Areas of interest include complex data analysis, machine learning, multi-objective optimisation, linear programming, integer programming and multi-agent modelling.

Application to real-world problems

Our research is concerned with a number of complex real-world problem domains such as transportation and logistics, transportation LCA, cutting and packing, timetabling and scheduling, portfolio optimisation and automated traffic signal control.

Director

Dr Ruibin Bai

Members

PhD students

  • Jianjun Chen
  • Cesar Velandia 
  • Tiangxiang Cui 
  • Andy (Libin) Hong 
  • Ning Xue 
  • Xia Li 

Funded projects

  • Title: Energy efficient freight transport scheduling in supply chain logistics
    Project duration: 01.04.2013 31.03.2015
    Reference: 71311130142. RMB 74,000. NSFC-UK Royal Society exchange fund
    Principal investigator: Dr Ruibin Bai. UK investigator: Dr Rong Qu
  • Title:Optimisation of large scale logistics service network design and fleet scheduling: Novel models and optimisation approaches based on hyper-heuristics
    Funding Source: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)
    Reference: 71001055, RMB 177,000 
    Project duration: January 2011 to December 2013
    Principal investigator: Dr Ruibin Bai. Co-investigators: Dr Rong Qu, Professor Graham Kendall, Dr Amin Farjudian
  • Title: From big data to new knowledge: Fundamental technology research with an application to intelligent logistics services platform development
    Funding Source: Ningbo Science and Technology Bureau. 2012B10055, RMB 1.2m
    Project duration: October 2012 to 2015
    Principal investigator: Professor Guoping Qiu. Co-investigators: Dr Ruibin Bai, Jingpeng Li
  • Title: Research and applications of search with evolutionary ruin and stochastic rebuild
    Funding Source: Ningbo Natural Science Foundation, 2012A610026, RMB50,000
    Project duration: September 2012 to August 2014.
    Principal Investigator: Jingpeng Li. Co-investigator: Dr Ruibin Bai 
  • Title:Dynamic scheduling and hyper-heuristic approaches for logistics service network design and fleet scheduling
    Funding Source: Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZJNSF) , Reference Y1100132, RMB100,000, Project duration: June 2010 to June 2013. Completed.
    Principal investigator: Dr Ruibin Bai. Co-investigators: Professor Lixin Miao, Professor Graham Kendall, Dr Rong Qu
  • Title:An investigation of the robustness of transportation scheduling for modern logistics
    Funding Source: Ningbo Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China, 2008A610013, RMB50,000
    Project duration: February 2008 to February 2010. Completed.
    Principal investigator: Dr Ruibin Bai 
  • Title:Investigation and development of adaptive transportation systems in logistics
    Funding Source: The University of Nottingham Inter-Campus Research Development Fund, 0100809IRF/BRB, Project duration: March 2009 to February 2011. Completed.
    Pricinpal investigator: Dr Ruibin Bai
  • Title:A distributed system for taxi scheduling
    Funding Source: Zhejiang Provincial "Qian Jiang" Talent Initiative Programme, China. QJD0802001, RMB50,000
    Project duration: January 2009 to December 2011. Completed.
    Principal investigator: Dr Ruibin Bai
  • Title:Handling uncertainties in transportation and logistics
    Funding Source: Ningbo Municipal International Collaboration Programme, China. 2008B10040, RMB200,000 Project duration: September 2008 to August 2011. Completed.
    Principal investigator: Dr Ruibin Bai

Publications

Journals

  1. Amin Farjudian and Behrouz Emamizadeh: Some Results on Radial Symmetry in Partial Differential Equations. New York J. Math. 20:241–255, 2014.
  2. Bai, Ruibin, Stein W Wallace, Jingpeng Li, and Alain Yee-Loong Chong (2014). “Stochastic service network design with rerouting”. In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 60, pp. 50–65. 
  3. Chong, Alain Yee-Loong and Ruibin Bai (2014). “Predicting open IOS adoption in SMEs: An integrated SEM-neural network approach”. In: Expert Systems with Applications 41.1, pp. 221–229. 
  4. Qin, Quande, Shi Cheng, Li Li, and Yuhui Shi (2014). “Artificial bee colony algorithm: A survey”. In: CAAI Transactions on Intelligent Systems 9.2, pp. 377–385. 
  5. Amin Farjudian: On the Kolmogorov complexity of continuous real functions. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic (APAL). 164(5):566–576, May 2013. 
  6. Bai, Ruibin, Jiawei Li, Jason AD Atkin, and Graham Kendall (2013). “A novel approach to independent taxi scheduling problem based on stable matching”. In: Journal of the Operational Research Society. 
  7. Bai, Ruibin, Tom van Woensel, Graham Kendall, and Edmund K Burke (2013). “A New Model and a Hyper-heuristic Approach for Two-dimensional Shelf Space Allocation”. In: 4OR - A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research 11.1, pp. 31–55. 
  8. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2013). “A Study of Normalized Population Diversity in Particle Swarm Optimization”. In: International Journal of Swarm Intelligence Research (IJSIR) 4.1, pp. 1–34. 
  9. Özcan, Ender, Zhang Kai, and John H Drake (2013). “Bidirectional best-fit heuristic considering compound placement for two dimensional orthogonal rectangular strip packing”. In: Expert Systems with Applications 40.10, pp. 4035–4043. 
  10. Wu, Zhou, Tommy W. S. Chow, Shi Cheng, and Yuhui Shi (2013). “Contour Gradient Optimization”. In: International Journal of Swarm Intelligence Research (IJSIR) 4.2, pp. 1–28. 
  11. Xing, Huanlai, Rong Qu, Graham Kendall, and Ruibin Bai (2013). “A path oriented encoding evolutionary algorithm for network coding resource minimization”. In: Journal of the Operational Research Society. 
  12. Bai, Ruibin, Jacek Blazewicz, Edmund K Burke, Graham Kendall, and Barry McCollum (2012). “A simulated annealing hyper-heuristic methodology for flexible decision support”. In: 4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research 10.1, pp. 43–66. 
  13. Bai, Ruibin, Graham Kendall, Rong Qu, and Jason Atkin (2012). “Tabu assisted guided local search approaches for freight service network design”. In: Information Sciences 189, pp. 266–281. 
  14. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2012). “Population Diversity of Particle Swarm Optimizer Solving Single and Multi-Objective Problems”. In: International Journal of Swarm Intelligence Research (IJSIR) 3.4, pp. 23–60. 
  15. Li, J, GJ Davies, Graham Kendall, Emma Soane, R Bai, SA Rocks, and Simon JT Pollard (2012). “Evidence and belief in regulatory decisions–Incorporating expected utility into decision modelling”. In: Expert systems with applications 39.10, pp. 8604–8610. 
  16. Qin, Quande, Li Li, Shi Cheng, and Rongjun Li (2012). “Interactive learning particle swarm optimization algorithm”. In: CAAI Transactions on Intelligent Systems 7.6, pp. 547–553. 
  17. Cheng, Shi and Yuhui Shi (2011). “Measurement of PSO Diversity Based on L1 Norm”. In: Chinese Journal of Computer Science 38.7, pp. 190–193. 
  18. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2011). “Experimental Study on Boundary Constraints Handling in Particle Swarm Optimization: From Population Diversity Perspective”. In: International Journal of Swarm Intelligence Research (IJSIR) 2.3, pp. 43–69. 
  19. Michal Konečný and Amin Farjudian (2010): Compositional Semantics of Dataflow Networks with Query-Driven Communication of Exact Values. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 16(18):2629–2656. 
  20. Michal Konečný and Amin Farjudian (2010): Semantics of query-driven communication of exact values. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 16(18):2597–2628. 
  21. Bai, Ruibin (2010). “Modeling Issues of Multi-level Multi-Mode Freight Service Network Design and Fleet Scheduling”. In: China Market-Logistics and Procurement Research 41, pp. 107–109. 
  22. Bai, Ruibin, Edmund K Burke, Graham Kendall, Jingpeng Li, and Barry McCollum (2010). “A hybrid evolutionary approach to the nurse rostering problem”. In: Evolutionary Computation, IEEE Transactions on 14.4, pp. 580–590. 
  23. Bai, Ruibin, Edmund K Burke, and Graham Kendall (2008). “Heuristic, meta-heuristic and hyper-heuristic approaches for fresh produce inventory control and shelf space allocation”. In: Journal of the Operational Research Society 59.10, pp. 1387–1397. 
  24. Bai, Ruibin and Graham Kendall (2008). “A model for fresh produce shelf-space allocation and inventory management with freshness-condition-dependent demand”. In: INFORMS Journal on Computing 20.1, pp. 78–85. 
  25. Amin Farjudian: SHRAD: A Language for Sequential Real Number Computation. Theory Compu. Syst. 41(1)(2007) 49–105. 
  26. Bai, R, Z Dong, X Guo, Q Yang, Q Li, and M Li (2007). “Study on Principle of Electrical Resistance Probe Based on-temperature Compensation for Corrosion Monitoring”. In: CORROSION SCIENCE AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY 19.5, p. 338.

Book chapters

  1. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2014). “Experimental Study on Boundary Constraints Handling in Particle Swarm Optimization: From Population Diversity Perspective”. In: Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization. Ed. by Yuhui Shi. Hershey: IGI Global, in press. 
  2. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2014). “Population Diversity of Particle Swarm Optimizer Solving Single and Multi-Objective Problems”. In: Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization. Ed. by Yuhui Shi. Hershey: IGI Global, in press. 
  3. Cheng, Shi, Tiew On Ting, and Xin-She Yang (2014). “Large-Scale Global Optimization via Swarm Intelligence”. In: Solving Computationally Extensive Engineering Problems: Methods and Applications. Ed. by Slawomir Koziel, Leifur Leifsson, and Xin-She Yang. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer, in press. 
  4. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, Quande Qin, and Ruibin Bai (2013). “Swarm Intelligence in Big Data Analytics”. In: Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning - IDEAL 2013, (The 14th International Conference on Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning). Ed. by Hujun Yin, Ke Tang, Yang Gao, Frank Klawonn, Minho Lee, Thomas Weise, Bin Li, and Xin Yao. Vol. 8206. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 417–426. 
  5. Cheng, Shi, Chun Zhao, Jingjin Wu, and Yuhui Shi (2013). “Particle Swarm Optimization in Regression Analysis: A Case Study”. In: Advances in Swarm Intelligence in 2013 (International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2013). Ed. by Ying Tan, Yuhui Shi, and Hongwei Mo. Vol. 7928. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 55–63. 
  6. Drake, John H, Nikolaos Kililis, and Ender Özcan (2013). “Generation of VNS components with grammatical evolution for vehicle routing”. In: Genetic Programming. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 25–36. 
  7. Kang, Yu, Tiew On Ting, Xin-She Yang, and Shi Cheng (2013). “One Parameter Differential Evolution (OPDE) for Numerical Benchmark Problems”. In: Advances in Swarm Intelligence in 2013, (International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2013). Ed. by Ying Tan, Yuhui Shi, and Hongwei Mo. Vol. 7928. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 431–438. 
  8. Li, Li, Jingpeng Li, Quande Qin, and Shi Cheng (2013). “Fuzzy Chance-constrained project portfolio selection model based on credibility theory”. In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, ISKE2013. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Shenzhen, China: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 731–743. 
  9. Swan, Jerry, John H Drake, Ender Özcan, James Goulding, and John Woodward (2013). “A Comparison of Acceptance Criteria for the Daily Car-Pooling Problem”. In: Computer and Information Sciences III, pp. 477–483. 
  10. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2012). “On the Performance Metrics of Multiobjective Optimization”. In: Advances in Swarm Intelligence, (International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2012). Ed. by Ying Tan, Yuhui Shi, and Zhen Ji. Vol. 7331. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 504–512. 
  11. Drake, John H, Ender Özcan, and Edmund Burke (2012). “An Improved Choice Function Heuristic Selection for Cross Domain Heuristic Search”. In: Parallel Problem Solving from Nature-PPSN XII, pp. 307–316. 
  12. Ting, Tiew On, Yuhui Shi, Shi Cheng, and Sanghyuk Lee (2012). “Exponential Inertia Weight for Particle Swarm Optimization”. In: Advances in Swarm Intelligence, (International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2012). Ed. by Ying Tan, Yuhui Shi, and Zhen Ji. Vol. 7331. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 83–90. 
  13. Xue, Jingqian, Yali Wu, Yuhui Shi, and Shi Cheng (2012). “Brain Storm Optimization Algorithm for Multi-objective Optimization Problems”. In: Advances in Swarm Intelligence, (International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2012). Ed. by Ying Tan, Yuhui Shi, and Zhen Ji. Vol. 7331. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 513–519. 
  14. Zhou, Dadian, Yuhui Shi, and Shi Cheng (2012). “Brain Storm Optimization Algorithm with Modified Step-size and Individual Generation”. In: Advances in Swarm Intelligence, (International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2012). Ed. by Ying Tan, Yuhui Shi, and Zhen Ji. Vol. 7331. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 243–252. 
  15. Cheng, Shi and Yuhui Shi (2011). “Normalized Population Diversity in Particle Swarm Optimization”. In: Advances in Swarm Intelligence, (International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2011). Ed. by Ying Tan, Yuhui Shi, Yi Chai, and Guoyin Wang. Vol. 6728. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 38–45. 
  16. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2011). “Promoting Diversity in Particle Swarm Optimization to Solve Multimodal Problems”. In: Neural Information Processing, (International Conference on Neural Information Processing, ICONIP 2011). Ed. by Bao-Liang Lu, Liqing Zhang, and James Kwok. Vol. 7063. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 228–237. 
  17. Amin Farjudian and Michal Konečný: Time complexity and convergence analysis of domain theoretic Picard method. In W. Hodges and R. de Queiroz, editors, Proceedings of the 15th international workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation, WoLLIC '08, Edinburgh, Scotland, volume 5110 of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, pages 149–163. Springer-Verlag, 2008. 
  18. Bai, Ruibin and Graham Kendall (2005). “An investigation of automated planograms using a simulated annealing based hyper-heuristic”. In: Metaheuristics: Progress as Real Problem Solvers. Springer US, pp. 87–108. 
  19. Amin Farjudian: Sequentiality and Piecewise-affinity in Segments of Real-PCF, Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, Volume 73, 25 October 2004, Pages 3–43, Proceedings of the Workshop on Domains VI.

Peer-reviewed conferences

  1. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, Quande Qin, T. O. Ting, and Ruibin Bai (2014). “Maintaining Population Diversity in Brain Storm Optimization Algorithm”. In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, (CEC 2014). Beijing, China: IEEE, in press. 
  2. Cui, Tianxiang, Shi Cheng, and Ruibin Bai (2014). “A Combinatorial Algorithm for The Cardinality Constrained Portfolio Optimization Problem”. In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, (CEC 2014). Beijing, China: IEEE, in press. 
  3. Chen, Jianjun, Ruibin Bai, Rong Qu, and Graham Kendall (2013). “A task based approach for a real-world commodity routing problem”. In: Computational Intelligence In Production And Logistics Systems (CIPLS), 2013 IEEE Workshop on. IEEE, pp. 1–8. 
  4. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2013). “Examples Initialization in Chinese Text Categorization”. In: Proceedings of The Third IEEE International Conference on Information Science and Technology (ICIST 2013). Yangzhou, China: IEEE, pp. 967–971. 
  5. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, Quande Qin, and Shujing Gao (2013). “Solution Clustering Analysis in Brain Storm Optimization Algorithm”. In: Proceedings of The 2013 IEEE Symposium on Swarm Intelligence, (SIS 2013). Singapore: IEEE, pp. 111–118. 
  6. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, Quande Qin, and Tiew On Ting (2013). “Particle Swarm Optimization based Nearest Neighbor Algorithm on Chinese Text Categorization”. In: Proceedings of The 2013 IEEE Symposium on Swarm Intelligence, (SIS 2013). Singapore: IEEE, pp. 164–171. 
  7. Jackson, Warren G, Ender Özcan, and John H Drake (2013). “Late acceptance-based selection hyper-heuristics for cross-domain heuristic search”. In: Computational Intelligence (UKCI), 2013 13th UK Workshop on. IEEE, pp. 228–235. 
  8. Li, Li, Jingpeng Li, Quande Qin, and Shi Cheng (2013). “Credibilistic Conditional Value at Risk under Fuzzy Environment”. In: Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Advanced Computational Intelligence, (ICACI 2013). Hangzhou, China: IEEE, pp. 350–353. 
  9. Amin Farjudian: Game Semantics and the Later Wittgenstein: A Computer Scientific Approach to Linguistics. Keynote speech at The 4th International Conference on Philosophy of Language, Faculty of Foreign Languages, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China, October 26–29, 2012. 
  10. Amin Farjudian: Polynomial-Time Solution of Initial Value Problems Using Polynomial Enclosures. In Ong, L., de Queiroz, R., editors, Logic, Language, Information and Computation: Proceedings of the 19th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2012, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 3–6, 2012. Volume 7456 of LNCS., Springer-Verlag (August 2012) 232–245. 
  11. Bai, Wei, Shi Cheng, Emmanuel M. Tadjouddine, and Sheng-Uei Guan (2012).“Incremental Attribute Based Particle Swarm Optimization”. In: Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Natural Computation, (ICNC 2012). Chongqing, China: IEEE, pp. 669–674. 
  12. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2012). “Dynamical Exploitation Space Reduction in Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Large Scale Problems”. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, (CEC 2012). Brisbane, Australia: IEEE, pp. 3030–3037. 
  13. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2012). “Particle Swarm Optimization based Semi-Supervised Learning on Chinese Text Categorization”. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, (CEC 2012). Brisbane, Australia: IEEE, pp. 3131–3198. 
  14. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, and Quande Qin (2012). “Population Diversity Based Study on Search Information Propagation in Particle Swarm Optimization”. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, (CEC 2012). Brisbane, Australia: IEEE, pp. 1272–1279. 
  15. Cheng, Shi, Yuhui Shi, Quande Qin, and Tiew On Ting (2012). “Population Diversity Based Inertia Weight Adaptation in Particle Swarm Optimization”. In: Proceedings of The Fifth International Conference on Advanced Computational Intelligence, (ICACI 2012). Nanjing, China: IEEE, pp. 395–403. 
  16. Bai, Ruibin, Jiawei Li, Jason AD Atkin, and Graham Kendall (2011). “A Game Theoretic Approach for the Taxi Scheduling Problem with Street Hailing”. In: In proceedings of the 5th Multidisciplinary International Conference on Scheduling : Theory and Applications (MISTA 2011), 9-11 August 2011, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, pp. 161–172. 
  17. Cheng, Shi and Yuhui Shi (2011). “Diversity Control in Particle Swarm Optimization”. In: Proceedings of 2011 IEEE Symposium on Swarm Intelligence, (SIS 2011). Paris, France: IEEE, pp. 110–118. 
  18. Bai, Ruibin, Graham Kendall, and Jiawei Li (2010). “An efficient guided local search approach for service network design problem with asset balancing”. In: 2010 International Conference on Logistics Systems and Intelligent Management (ICLSIM 2010). Vol. 1. IEEE, pp. 110–115. 
  19. Li, Jiawei, Graham Kendall, Simon Pollard, Emma Soane, Gareth Davies, and Ruibin Bai (2010). “A decision support approach for group decision making under risk and uncertainty”. In: Logistics Systems and Intelligent Management, 2010 International Conference on. Vol. 3. IEEE, pp. 1856–1860. 
  20. Jan A. Duracz, Amin Farjudian and Michal Konečný: Enclosure constraints for floating point software verification. May, 2009. Presented at CFV'09. 
  21. Woodward, John R and Ruibin Bai (2009). “Canonical representation genetic programming”. In: Proceedings of the first ACM/SIGEVO Summit on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation. ACM, pp. 585–592. 
  22. Woodward, John R and Ruibin Bai (2009). “Why evolution is not a good paradigm for program induction: a critique of genetic programming”. In: Proceedings of the first ACM/SIGEVO Summit on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation. ACM, pp. 593–600. 
  23. Aavani, A. Farjudian , M. Salmani-Jelodar, and A. Andalib: Information Theoretic Text Classification. The 12th International CSI Computer Conference, Tehran, Iran, pp 1613–1618, Feb, 2007. 
  24. Bai, Ruibin, Edmund K Burke, Michel Gendreau, and Graham Kendall (2007). “A simulated annealing hyper-heuristic: adaptive heuristic selection for different vehicle routing problems”. In: Proc. of the 3rd Multidisciplinary Int. Conf. on Scheduling: Theory and Applications, Paris, France, August, pp. 28–31. 
  25. Bai, Ruibin, Edmund K Burke, Michel Gendreau, Graham Kendall, and Barry McCollum (2007). “Memory length in hyper-heuristics: An empirical study”. In: Computational Intelligence in Scheduling, 2007. SCIS’07. IEEE Symposium on. IEEE, pp. 173–178. 
  26. Bai, Ruibin, Edmund K Burke, Graham Kendall, and Barry McCollum (2006). “A simulated annealing hyper-heuristic for university course timetabling”. In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference on the Practice and Theory of Automated Timetabling, pp. 345–350.

Miscellaneous

  1. Cheng, Shi (2013). “Population Diversity in Particle Swarm Optimization: Definition, Observation, Control, and Application”. PhD thesis. Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool. 
  2. Drake, John H, Matthew Hyde, Khaled Ibrahim, and E Özcan (2012). “A genetic programming hyper-heuristic for the multidimensional knapsack problem”. 
  3. Drake, John H, Ender Özcan, and Edmund K Burke (2011). “Controlling crossover in a selection hyper-heuristic framework”. In: School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, Tech. Rep. No. NOTTCS-TR-SUB-1104181638-4244. 
  4. Michal Konečný, Amin Farjudian and Jan Duracz: AERN-Real: Arbitrary precision interval arithmetic for approximating exact real numbers. A Haskell library available at http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/AERN-Real, July 2008. 
  5. Bai, Ruibin (2005). “An investigation of novel approaches for optimising retail shelf space allocation”. PhD thesis. University of Nottingham. 
  6. Amin Farjudian (2004): Sequentiality in Real Number Computation. PhD thesis, School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, UK Dissertation. 
  7. Bai, Ruibin (2002). “Nesting of Two-dimensional Irregular Shapes Utilising The No Fit Polygon”. MA thesis. Northwestern Polytechnic University. 
  8. Drake, John H, Andrew J Parkes, and Francisco Fernandez-Trillo. “Polymer Folding and Packing for Vesicle Design”. 
  9. Velandia, César D, Ruibin Bai, Graham Kendall, and Jason Atkin. “Co-ordinated Operation of Queues at Congested Arterial Signalised Intersections”.